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Biography The Golden Ratio as a Dimensionless Biological Constant Enabling a Dynamic Uniformity in Specificity within Various SelfSimilar Scales in Natural Phenomena: Its Operation within the Universal, Dimensional Physical Constants and in a Fractal Reality Part I: The Dimensionless Biological Constant and Forces In an earlier publication, this author demonstrated that many, if not all, of the universal, dimensional physical constants of physics have either as an underlying common component a dimensionless constant equal to the golden ratio or its reciprocal, or in some cases combinations of both or powers of both. Such a constant was referred to as a biological dimensionless constant as it was shown to represent biological properties or features, such as regeneration. This was also shown to be a situation involving the physical constants independent of the system of units, but allowed to be detected through a mathematical constant, pi, on which the metric system is based, and which the physical dimensional constants use. (See, Lieber. 1998a.) The biological dimensionless constant, referred to as Q in this article, rather than as Φ, reflects or defines an inherent, regenerative feature of all natural phenomena, biological as well as physical. This regenerative, significant geometrical feature, under and through the constraint of nonuniform physical forces, also geometrically structured or mediated, reflects a universal drive within all phenomena. This is the drive to maximize, utilizing that very nonuniform constraint, the uniformity of forces within the specificities or nonuniformities through all space within each of the phenomena or systems. (The physicist, Paul Lieber describes such a drive in a 1969 publication.) As the author illustrates as to feasibility, this is enabled through geometries or geometrical constraints only allowed by or enabled through this dimensionless constant, Q or its reciprocal Q^{1}. As inherent in these geometries is the golden ratio that enables geometries whereby a maximum uniformity of force can be generated throughout and utilizing completely or uniformly all the space throughout those geometries. The very generation of these forces and their patterns would be guided or defined or enabled by and through these spatial geometries or structured geometrical constraints. As pointed out first by G. B. Riemann in 1854 and then by W. Clifford (circa, 1899), forces could be determined by or arise through curvatures within space. Subsequently, A. Einstein, using Riemann's mathematics, creatively and elegantly demonstrated in various publications that gravitational forces and their patterns are due to or are marked by curvatures within a spacetime metric field influenced or structured by means of matterenergy and its inherent geometry. And this could be a geometry having Q as a constant and enabling parameter. Though not addressing this particular possibility, Dr. Einstein's theories have nevertheless been supported experimentally. Dr. Clifford further pointed out that magnetic forces could be due to twists within space. If this were the situation, might these twists within space, or within a spacetime metric field, be spirals whose pa ameters are defined and enabled by Q? Many developments in physics have attempted to unite the various forces of nature, such as gravity and electromagnetic forces, as unified distortions of a spacetime metric at higher dimensions. Q could extend to and be involved in such dimensions, and thereby the specific forces allowed by or expressed through such dimensions. Though each specific, dimensional physical constant refers to specific forces and/or energies, the common underlying dimensionless constant Q defines a universal common behavior to all the various forces. Namely, irrespective of the particular force or energy, all forces would maximize their uniformity of magnitude, probably of the lowest degree also for maximum stability, within specificities or nonuniformities, with the consequence of such maximum uniformity achieving a maximum stability throughout all the space and time within the system or structural phenomenon, hence adaptation or its preservation, its constancy through regeneration by means of forces geometrically patterned. Only through a regenerative dynamic shaped by a geometry modeled or determined or allowed or enabled through Q could such a uniformity of force be achieved or approached within or utilizing all space in a compact, though uniform manner. The existence or operation of the physical constants would be based upon and reflect this. In view of this, let us first take a look at a physical dimensional constant and see how the regenerative subconstant Q or its reciprocal Q^{1, }may play a role, and thereby in the operation or maintenance of an important physical constant. In light propagation, the velocity of propagation of the electromagnetic wave or field is 3 x 10^{8 }meters per second or 5(Q^{1}) x 10^{8}meters^{ }per second. This speed in a vacuum is a universal constant. Due to Q or due to what it represents or means, such a propagation would indicate a represented regeneration enabled by what Q or Q^{1 }geometrically allows within the dimensional constant, and would also suggest a wave propagation of electromagnetic forces of maximally uniform symmetry within the entire region of spatial propagation. In situations where light would manifest photon characteristics within the propagation as compact, coherently connected wavepackets, such propagation would be of the maximum uniformity of the forces between the photons and a maximum uniformity within the geometrical relationships between the specific photons themselves. The geometry of propagation might also indicate the operation of a constant endemic universally to various geometries, and that constant is pi or Π. And in fact, this constant is readily evident in the expression of the velocity of light constant, namely 5Q^{1 }x (Π^{2 })^{8} meter per second, where 10 equals Π^{2}. In fact, wherever 10 is present in the dimensional constants, which is in every one of such, Π^{2 }can be substituted, again indicating an inherent, nondimensional constancy, underlining the dimensional constants, yet geometrically defining with regard to uniform force patterns maximally displayed within space and time. A important connection between Π and Q is thus indicated regarding the maintenance of the underlining dimensionless constancy within the dimensional constants due to the regeneration involving forces and their uniformity of manifestation. This connection is also seen in some mathematical equations: In various, complex trigonometric equations or expressions Q can be expressed in terms of Π, where in other trigonometric equations, Π is expressed in terms of Q. (See Posamentier, A. & Lehmann, 2012.) These expressions might also point to constant relationships within physical phenomena, perhaps involving selfsimilar waves, yet to be discovered. Trigonometric functions do in fact describe electromagnetic phenomena, such as waves, and the Fourier series shows how trigonometric functions combine into complex wavefunctions, which describe actual physical wave behavior in fluid dynamics. In a well known physicalchemical situation, there is the operation of Avogadro's constant. This is a remarkable transcaler constant, which points to numerical identities or uniformities across different levels of organization from the atom to molecule to the scale of the grammole, linking uniformly all these different physical entities across different levels of organization in a selfsimilar manner. This dimensional constant in terms of Q and Π is Π^{2 }Q^{1 }x (Π^{2})^{23 }per mole, again showing the operation and significance of dimensionless constants within another dimensional constant, but linking all dimensional constants together. (See Table 1 listing many of the dimensional constants wherein Q or Q^{1} and Π are evident.) As one reviews the various dimensional physical constants, one sees how Q and Π become repeatedly revealed. Though the relationships between Q and Π (or between the various forms of Q such as Q^{1 }and Q^{2 }) may change within the expressions of the different dimensional constants or from constant to constant or from metric unit to metric unit, Q in its various forms will always appear and will appear constantly with Π^{2 }or at times with Π. We see this with the Boltzmann dimensional constant, which defines or applies to a situation where the entropy of energy or its uniformity increases maximally through space and time. This is a situation that could be described as an evolving, physical system towards maximum uniformity, but not uniformity within specificity. When the physical units of this constant are in terms of calories and degrees centigrade, this constant is written as 2Q x (Π^{2 })^{24 }cal/^{o}C. However, when the units of that constant are in terms of joules and degrees Kelvin, the constant becomes expressed as 1+Q^{1}/Q x (Π^{2})^{23 }joules per degree Kelvin. The various relationships of these different forms of Q evident through the various dimensional constants might be constructed into some type of periodic table. Such a table might provide deeper meanings of these relationships and more insight as to how the various constants repeatedly relate more fully and completely to one another through repeating patterns involving Q and Q^{1}. Though, the dimensional constants being unified by a force regeneration and force display, defined or patterned by Q and its forms, is also a important revelation. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize, such a periodic table of the various combinations of the forms of Q through the dimensional constants might further reveal a common physical selfsimilarity of generation of force patterns across different levels of organization within and between different phenomena. In this regard, as the Plank's constant, the quantum of action, involving force through time, refers to a constant feature of the quantumenergy process on the microlevel of reality, and, as the cosmological level of reality is defined by the gravitational constant, and, as both of these constants have in common Q, as shown in Table 1, this would suggest that Q refers to or defines a selfsimilar or transcaler process or pattern involving forces, which is common to both realms or levels of physicalgeometrical organization. (Also, see Lieber, 1998a.) This generation of selfsimilarity on different scales, defined or allowed geometricallyphysically by Q or its forms, could predictably be the generation of the maximum degree of force uniformity within specificity on different scales and between such scales. This would be geometrically represented by a fractal structure, stabilized uniformly by such forces. Such a fractal would represent a Principle of Universal Correspondence applied to the dynamic drive for maximum force uniformity on various, respective levels composing the different organizational scales of physical phenomena and the corresponding, similar behavior of these different scaled phenomena by means of such forces. Paul Lieber in 1968 and 1969 first described such a Principle operating in connection to a dynamic of maximum uniformity and the universal, physical constants. Part II: The Biological Dimensionless Constant in Dynamics, Fractals and Reality We have seen the golden ratio or Q as defining or representing a common regenerative component or factor within all the dimensional universal constants of physics. These respective constants deal with or address specific physical situations and the specific forces endemic to those situations. Yet, such constants also refer to and depend on a common regenerative factor or dynamic that is aspecific, but which is within all specific physical situations. Paul Lieber (1968, 1969) demonstrated that the dimensional physical constants mark or represent the accommodating, adaptive nature of forces in specific situations irrespective of the types of forces involved. This accommodation has geometricaldynamical constraints in and between various physical and biological systems. That is, the systems display a drive to achieve a maximum degree of force uniformity within and between themselves under or within the constraints of nonuniform forces or stresses present within and between such systems. The physical constants would mark this constancy of the dynamic drive in various situations, including biological, to achieve a maximum uniformity of force within a nonuniformity of force or nonuniform constraints or stress, and consequently, a maximization of the degree of stability within and between the systems, enabling the accommodation and conservation of such.. The golden ratio, Q , or its reciprocal common to all these dimensional constants would mark or describes or defines geometricallyphysically how this is achieved or enabled, the effective avenue of the "go of it." Biological processes or systems clearly show this. In bud development of plants, the buds develop in such a way spatially with respect to one another that there is likely the lowest degree or magnitude of mechanical pressure or stress between themselves. (See Posamentier and Lehmann, 2012.) This manifestation of a low degree of stress between buds is due to the angle of divergence between them. A component of this angle of divergence is the golden ratio or Q, as can be seen: 360^{o}/Q^{2}. This angle of divergence, 137.5^{o}, also referred to as the golden angle, enables, according to the aforementioned authors, the maximum number of buds to develop in a small space without interfering or inhibiting each other's development that would otherwise occur due to a high, inhibiting mechanical pressure between those developing buds. The generation of this golden angle prevents the generation of the inhibiting, high degree of mechanical pressure between structures within the small space. It is likely that this low degree of physical stress or force, its low magnitude and direction, will be found to be uniformly displayed or manifested between all specific, developing buds. One can interpret this inhibiting, high pressure as being nonuniform, thereby a nonuniform stress. In this regard, the golden ratio or golden angle manifests and enables an adaptive and stabilizing process that would otherwise be greatly constrained or inhibited through, nonuniform, high stress. Moreover, in terrestrial plants having this golden angle between specific developing buds also enables these buds to achieve the maximum exposure to light for essential photosynthesis. Hence, the maximum uniform display of a low degree of mechanical pressure or force throughout a system of developing buds as well as a maximum exposure to light by means of the golden angle between the buds allows for different types of accommodation or adaptation, and thereby a stabilization of the living process. At a higher scale, the overall arrangement of emerging buds from a plant stem or the arrangement of seeds within a sunflower with respect to one another is itself a spiral. This is a specific type of generating logarithmic spiral whose inner ratio of growth dimensions is Q. This spiral, the golden spiral, is a logarithmic spiral whose growth factor or rate is Q per every 90 degrees of its turn or curve, irrespective of scale. This particular developing spiral arrangement or pattern of emerging buds and seeds at this higher scale is referred to as phyllotaxis, and it appears that the golden ratio at the lower scale enables this arrangement. In the case of the sunflower seeds, one group develops along a given number of counterclockwise logarithmic spirals, while another group develops along clockwise logarithmic golden spirals of another number. The ratio of these two numbers of clockwise and counter clockwise logarithmic spirals, irrespective of the developing sunflower plant, is always Q. The same situation can be seen in various plants with regard to location of repeating structures making up the spirals, such as in the surface morphology of the pineapple, and the seedarrangements of a pinecone, where the ratios of the numbers making up the different classes of phyllotaxislogrithmetic spirals (e.g., clockwise and counterclockwise directions) are always equal to Q. These numbers occur within what is called a Fibonacci sequence, and adjacent numbers within that sequence have the ratio Q with respect to one another. This also demonstrates that at a still higher level of organization or scale, the golden ratio becomes again manifest in development, suggesting that the golden ratio is necessary for effective development. In fact, it is pointed out again that the involvement of the golden ratio within the generating spiral arrangement enables the most efficient use of space (Livio, 2002), and probably of minimal force manifested uniformly through that space. Again, this may indicate a dynamic cause of phyllotaxis and the critical role that Q plays in such, especially as it appears to dynamically link coherently and with stability the different levels of developing organization, which appear to be selfsimilar. In this regard, a physical experiment strongly supports the involvement of Q in a physically organizing process: A dish containing silicone oil was placed in a magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic field was stronger at the dish's edge than at its center. "Drops of a magnetic fluid , which act like tiny bar magnets were dropped periodically at the center of dish. The tiny magnets repelled each other and were pushed radially by the magnetic field gradient. Doudy and Couder [the experimenters] found patterns that oscillated about, but generally converged to, a spiral on which the golden angle separated successive drops. Physical systems usually settle into states that [uniformly] minimize the energy [or magnitude of force used through space]. The suggestion is therefore that phyllotaxis simply represents a minimal energy [low magnitude force transferred uniformly through space] for a system of mutually repelling buds." (Livio, 2002.) A developmental patterning on different scales, guided or allowed by Q, would appear to only ensue in the maximization of a uniformly low magnitude of force through all limited spacetime. In effect, the dimensionless constant Q appears to have enabled the most efficient, stabilizing, adaptive utilization of force in various biological and physical situations. Again, this is further illustrated. In other growth situations, the golden ratio or its reciprocal might also represent geometrically the best means or avenues to achieving a maximum degree of low uniform stress within a growing biological system, achieving maximal stability through space and time in the system. For example, terrestrial plants, such as the angiosperms, produce branches (and leaves), and these appear to be produced or displayed in a selfsimilar, reduction manner, taking the form of a fractal. Let us consider the following in this regard: To achieve a maximum degree of a generating, reducing selfsimilarity, whereby all space between developing branches (and between developing leaves) are achieved with minimal contact between branches and between leaves, and thereby minimal mechanical pressure between the structures, the reduction fraction or factor of each branch produced would be 0.618 (the reciprocal of the golden ratio) the length of the branch from which it began as a bud. This reduction fraction would enable the production of the maximum degree of uniformity of branching within the tree or bush with the minimal of touching. This geometrical uniformity of branching, utilizing all space and generated through time and mathematically defined or allowed by the reciprocal of Q, could represent the maximum uniformity of low stress throughout the organism, that is, the tree. This fractal process based on or requiring the reciprocal of Q, which achieves through a reducing iteration such an adaptive, branching geometry, can be demonstrated by means of a very similar, fractalgenerating procedure due to the reciprocal of Q, that is Q^{1}. (See Posamentier & Lehmann, 2012.) Moreover, through this procedure, as the author found, triangles can also be constructed or denoted from the lengths of branches on smaller and smaller scales, each of which triangle has an angle of 31.6^{o} at smaller and smaller scales. The vertex of each of these angles marks the end of one branching structure and the beginning of another irrespective of scale. The tangent of this angle, which is the ratio of one branch's length to another at respectively smaller and smaller scales, is approximately equivalent to Q^{1}, and thus Q^{1} becomes evident at smaller and smaller scales. Such a tangent, Q^{1}, could also contribute to and manifest the geometry that best allows for a maximum, stable adaptation through various scales. Q^{1 }would enable the generation or creation of a biological system of such a geometry wherein the maximum degree of a low degree of uniform mechanical force is achieved throughout the system. We have also seen where Q in the golden angle at one scale and in phyllotaxis at a higher scale also allows this. The geometry created by means of a selfsimilar, fractal reduction enabled or determined by the reciprocal of Q marks a situation where forces of low magnitude could be maximally displayed uniformly, that is, the maximal uniformity of low stress. Such could be adaptive as it gives a maximum degree of stability to the biological organism, be it a tree or a mollusc. Shortly, we shall see more examples where Q itself plays such a role. We see how the generation of a fractal geometry, enabled or allowed through a constant reducing factor common to the dimensional physical constants, could represent a dynamical, adaptive situation for biological systems. This adaptive, fractal process, whose constant, determining parameter or constraint is the reciprocal of Q, or of the golden ratio, also generates different, selfsimilar specificities, between which, more and more low level, uniform stress is likely enabled. Hence, the very generation of this selfsimilar specificity could allow for or provide more and more avenues for the creation of greater force uniformity throughout the specificities on and between the different fractal levels or scales, hence would ensue greater dynamical uniformity through greater specificity or nonuniformity, thereby greater stability in space and time. The different physical, dimensional constants represent different types of forces. But, due to the common, underlining constant that defines a common behavior of such forces, the various forces would also be governed by a fractal, dynamic drive to achieve a maximum degree of uniformity of magnitude within situations and periods wherein such forces operate or are prevalent. This drive operates through either decreasing or increasing scales of the physical and biological realms. With regard to lower scales, as we have seen, this fractal, dynamic drive can have the constant of the reciprocal of the golden ratio, as only in this dynamical reducing factor, producing one type of selfsimilarity of increasing specificity throughout smaller and smaller scales, could ensue in a situation whereby a maximum uniformity of force is achieved throughout different levels of selfsimilar, specificity based on the reciprocal of the golden ratio. However, from the perspective of going from these lower scales to the higher, Q becomes manifest. It would appear that Q^{1 }and Q represent together mirroring, regenerative drives towards dynamical uniformity within specificity. And from a global perspective or scale, these mirroring drives would appear to be occurring concurrently, completing one another during biological and physical development. Thus in development, the golden ratio itself, 1.618 or Q, can also enable or define an increasing selfsimilarity on higher and higher scales. This in fact generates a fractal or morphology based on or determined by a dilation factor or ratio, which is the golden ratio itself. By virtue of this particular ratio, or dilation factor, a growth is achieved that displays geometrically a maximum degree of uniformity within an increasing specificity or nonuniformity on higher and higher scales. This morphology or growth is displayed or arranged as a logarithmic golden spiral, and it is displayed at various scales in the growth patterns and organization of various plants and animals, such as the shell of the Nautilus. And in fact, a 65 millionold fossil of a mollusk has a shape that closely resembles a logarithmic golden spiral, perhaps indicating that Q has been significantly relevant to life for millions of years, an effective constant through time. The logarithmic golden spiral and its constant features would appear to be applicable to or define or represent, from various perspectives and analyses, including geometrical, the generative designs of existence, which scientists have denoted as physical and biological. The constants or constancies through the logarithmic golden spiral are clearly evident, and they become very important in elucidating the nature and dynamic of those designs, which we define as reality or existence. As noted, the logarithmic golden spiral increases by a constant factor of Q over every 90^{o} of its curve at every scale within a specific set of different scales, from the smallest scale to the largest. That is, a golden spiral becomes wider or further from its origin by a constant factor of Q for every 90 degree turn it or its radius takes with respect to the coordinates. Also, in its constant rate of logarithmic generation, the golden spiral concurrently generates equal angles of 30 degrees (and 60 degrees) with vertices along the curve, and the respective cotangents of each of these equal angles are always equal to 1.718 at every scale within a given set of scales. In short, the spiral also generates a constant growth rate of 1.718 per unit rotation angle of the spiral radius per or within each equal angle, which rate is also referred to as the logarithmic rate (Clifford, 1899). In other words, this particular growth magnitude is the cotangent of each of the equal 30 degree angles (and equal 60 degree angles) generated along the spiral curve, where tangents and spiral radii intersect to form the basis of triangles with identical angles along the spiral curve. (Please note Figure S.) Triangles having identical angles with respect to one another are referred to as equiangular. The unit angle rotation of the spiral radius with respect to the coordinates also generates the 90 degree angle of each of the equiangular or identical triangles, and thereby each of the equiangular triangles and their other angles, which happen to be 30 degrees and 60 degrees, and which are equiangular or equivalent in all the triangles generated along the spiral curve. The cotangents of these two angles, whose respective vertices occur on the curve, are 1.718. In effect, the generation of these equiangles along the curve, giving rise to the cotangent 1.718, depends on the generation of the 90 degree angle, and thereby the cotangent 1.718 also depends on such. The generation of the cotangent 1.718 of each equal angle of 30 degrees (or of 60 degrees) per unit angle of radius rotation, with respect to the coordinate, always results in the exponential growth constant, e, which is 2.718, per unit angle of radius rotation per each 30 degree (or 60 degree) equal angle generation and per each 90 degree angle of the triangles generated along and defining the spiral curve. (Clifford, 1899). Adding the two components of this cotangent ratio always give a scalar magnitude of 2.718. The generation of e through equal angles, along the spiral curve, is enabled through a 90 degree rotation of the growing radius section or triangle side within and generating each triangle. This is a 90 degree rotation or the operation i with respect to a side of each generating triangle. A rotation of 90 degrees is equivalent to the rotation or operation i within a complex number, coordinate system. The generation of e becomes contingent on this particular 90 degree rotation or i involved in generating the equiangular triangles along and defining the curve (Clifford, 1999). This generation of e becomes another constant feature of the logarithmic spiral. Also, e is an extremely important mathematical constant, and it shows up in calculations dealing with physical phenomena. It was noted that 1.718, the generative basis for e, might also occur as another generative, dimensionless component of some other dimensional physical constants (Lieber, 1998a), including those to be discovered. Note that 1.718 is almost identical to 1.618, that is Q, which is also significant. In that publication, 1.718 was denoted as Q1. Could Q and Q1 refer to features of the same, basic generative operation or situation within different sets of scales within existence, where each scaleset corresponds to a different infinity, such as those described by the mathematician, G. Cantor, at the end of the 19th century? Could Q and Q1 be applied interchangeably? The near identity of these two generative constants has an important meaning or significance, which as yet is not clear. However, there may be some clarification in this regard through considering the following. As noted, the logarithmic rate 1.718 results generatively in e, an example of constancy through generation. And most significantly, there is a clear relationship between e and Q, as Q^{1}+ Q^{2}equals^{ }e^{2}^{Πi }(Lieber, 1998a) This equation might refer to the generative and geometricalinducing properties of a deeper reality or plenum, a type of fluidlike, ultra matter that could underlie and pervade spacetime and give structure to it (Lieber, 1998a). This plenum, possibly having the property of impenetrability, would be the seat of the forces arising and manifested via the geometricallyshaped field. Possibly applied to this deeper realm or plenum, the imaginary number, i or1i, the square root of 1, refers to an operation that defines an increasing, constant curving generation over an angle of 90^{o }in a complex number plane based on imaginary numbers composed of i. This constant rate of curving generation over 90^{o }at all scales represented by i through Π/2 radians could also be or correspond to the generation or manifestation of Q, where Q manifests itself via as well in guiding selfsimilarly such curving, uniform forces in specificity over 90^{o} at all scales within an infinite, particular set of physical scales. Q1 would also represent a selfsimilar, curving regeneration over 90 degrees or i generation over another, particular infinite set of physical scales. Both constants may depend on a deeper constant, i, which might also be a feature of a universal template operating imprintingly and selfsimilarly through various setscales of existence via these very defining, dimensionless constants. The relationships between Q, Π, i and e, as displayed in the above equation, can also be seen in the equation^{ }of the logarithmic golden spiral within a complex number system or plane (Table 1). These constants and collectively their relationships to one another become manifest through the consequent generation of the selfsimilar logarithmic spirals on and through all scales (and their sets), and correspondingly, in and through various phenomena. This points to the operation of such dimensionless constants explicitly and implicitly in the maintenance of the dimensional constants within various scales of phenomena, hence of the phenomena themselves in which the dimensional constants become manifest. Their operation also points to their involvementthrough the dimensionless constantsin the generation of a geometry of force that displays through and is defined or enabled by a logarithmic spiral, a maximum uniformity of curving force within specificity through various scales, and hence an ongoing generation of stability through those various physical scales. In other words, it is thus likely that, structured via the dimensionless constants, this vortical geometry of maximum uniformity within specificity also represents, defines, and allows a maximum uniformity of forces within specificity on all scales or levels of organization, from the very smallest to the very largest. The golden ratio and its reciprocal would appear to be those dimensionless constants that, within a spiral configuration, enable or determine, or through which, a maximum uniformity of force of various types, such as mechanical and magnetic, can be achieved throughout different levels or scales of specificity, and in so doing, would give stability through those different scales, and thus be adaptive. The feasibility of this view or hypothesis can again be demonstrated experimentally with physical phenomena. In an experiment involving the changing spatial relationship of ferromagnetic balls being added in a magnetic field, a regular spiral pattern based on Q was generated within the changing geometrical arrangement of those balls. (See Posmentier &Lehman, 2012.) This might also suggest an arrangement of magnetic forces between all these balls that can only achieve a maximum degree of global uniformity or stability by means of a spiral or vortical geometry enabled by the golden ratio. As pointed out by Posamentier and Lehmann (2012),"this pattern building [based on the golden ratio] has also been observed in many other nonbiological systems." Predictably, these could be systems where the dimensionless constants appear to become evident. In fact, quasicrystals display a geometry of interconnected and partially overlapping decagons in which all space is completely used in such a manner that a maximum uniformity of pattern or symmetry is created compactly throughout all space on different scales of the crystal. The geometry is based on Q throughout the geometry and could not have arisen without it. (See Posamentier & Lehmann, 2012.) It is likely the geometry is sustained or manifests itself by forces in uniform magnitude throughout the crystal, indicating that the forces sustained or manifested the geometry by means of Q's influence on that very geometry. And it could have only done so if the forces emerging from the crystal themselves eventually displayed configurationally a maximally uniform force magnitude throughout the crystal due to the operation of Q on the crystal's geometry. In effect, within a natural substance, Q could have guided or enabled or determinedperhaps via a type of geometricallymediated, global imprintingthe generation of a maximal, stabilizing force configuration throughout the crystal and through its geometry, a force configuration manifested by a Qenabled geometry. In short, Q would define or guide the crystal's geometry of forces, and those forces retroactively and stably would maintain or enable that very geometry by means of Q's guidance. By means of Q, the geometry of the crystal would manifest the forces and their patterns, and the forces and their patterns would manifest the geometry. Through this, stability, and thereby constancy, would become manifest and enabled through the dynamic of regeneration represented and guided by the dimensionless biological constant. Significantly regarding the operation of a Q based geometry and force in genetics, a given crosssection of the DNA molecule making up the genetic material is also a decagon in which Q is represented. (See Hemenway, 2005.) Again, this might suggest a maximum degree of patterning, uniform force throughout the DNA molecule for its stabilization, a stabilization enabled by Q, and a stabilization that would be needed for a stable or constant inheritance of the gene. Perhaps, also contributing to this stabilization is the ratio of the angstrom distance of one complete turn of the DNA molecule to its diameter, which according to some reports is 1.618 or Q (34A/21A). (For example, see Hemenway, 2005.) Other reports have the diameter as being 20A. Even so, the ensuing ratio of 1.7 is not significantly different from Q. When DNA is in less than a stable state, as when it is under stress, it can undergo mutation. In this regard, when hypermutation rates within genes in bacteria due to environmental stress are divided by spontaneous mutation rates of such genes under no stress, the factor Q (or its various forms such as Q^{2}) always appears as a coefficient. This analysis was performed by the author on his own hypermutation data (Lieber, 1998b) and on the mutation data from different researchers investigating hypermutation. As the author pointed out in that publication, hypermutation apparently becomes a means to restabilize the genome following a nonuniform stress. Thus, Q also appears to be an indicator of this dynamic. In this connection, one might wonder that on the scale of adaptive evolution involving extremely high mutation rates, Q or its forms (exponential powers thereof) may have also played a guiding role, leading to the stabilization of life at one of the highest of scales. That pattern of evolution is represented as a complex branching tree, where a maximum degree of uniformity in specificity or nonuniformity has been generated through spacetime. The branching patterns of living trees and bushes replicates in a selfsimilar pattern on a lower level or scale the branching pattern of the evolution of organisms, and a constant common to each scale could be Q or Q^{1}, as is likely a maximum uniformity of forces within specificity common to each level of these organizations, and also probably patterned or guided by Q. Q could represent a true constant on the scale of evolution. The logarithmic spiral displayed by many vortical hurricanes and vortical galaxies demonstrates the operation or guidance of Q (and implicitly i and e) on the pattern of forces generated within and through the shaping of these systems also at the highest of scales. From the preceding accounts, we see how or why these implicit and explicit dimensionless constants, such as i and Q, compose in different forms and ways the various, universal dimensional constants of physics, and, in so doing, playing a significant role in physical and biological phenomena on various scales, and hence the deep connection between force and its vortical generation and the dimensionless constants. Namely and more inclusively, the dimensionless constants, which include primarily and explicitly the various forms or powers of Q and Π, and, also implicitly, the constants i and e, the exponential constant, collectively represent, define and enable a constant dynamical drive to achieve a maximum degree of dynamical uniformity within and between all specific scales of physical and biological systems or phenomena. Such a drive would be through the fractal creationprimarily defined or enabled by the golden ratio and its reciprocal or powersof those very specific systems on all levels of fractal organization. Through the explicit, primary and necessary presence and application of this underlining, biological dimensionless constant, Q, or its forms, could a maximum uniformity of force be achieved in various systems or phenomena, and hence their maximum stability or integrity. In this situation, the other dimensionless constants would appear to define and represent implicitly the constant, contributing, curvilinear or vortical generations involved, thereby behaving in a subsidiary though significant role in achieving a maximum, adaptive stability. The deeper implication is that golden ratio or its reciprocal applies to all particular levels or scales of reality, from below the quantum level, where six, hidden, new curled dimensions might be present in addition to the four dimensions of our reality, to the cosmological level. Physicists conjecture in various publications that there may be ten dimensions to the universe or physical reality. This might be denoted or indicated subtly by the repeated occurrence of Π^{2}(ten)^{ }along with Q in the expression of the dimensional physical constants. This further implies that there is a universal organizing principle, represented or defined by these dimensionless constants involving Q and Π^{2} , operating on different levels or scales of organization, probably enabling a maximum uniformity of force within growing specificity, even at the quantum level or below. If these proposed dimensions are ever demonstrated experimentally, it is predicted that Q will also become evident as a parameter. The Plank length or scale, which is Q x (Π^{2 })^{35 }meters, and which is derived from three dimensional constants, would appear to show that Q operates or enables patterned dynamics at one of the smallest detectable lengths or dimensions. That is, this operation of Q would be at an extremely tiny microscale of reality, where the effects of gravity forcefields, their geometry, merge or fuse with quantum phenomena or states. And, in so doing as Penrose (1994) argues, the different gravityfields of different, evolved, superimposed quantum situations or states or alternatives, which are represented by an algebra based on the imagery number i or 1i, could also merge or resolve in a stable manner, producing one, reduced, nonsuperimposed, localized, dynamically stable, quantumgravity system from many possible ones. According to Penrose, it would be the incompatibility of these different gravityfields, their geometries, with one another, and a dynamically driven accommodation to such, that would determine the resolution towards the reduced, stable quantum state, that is, the collapse of the unstable, superimposed, nonlocal system into a reduced, local, dynamically stable system. Might this stability be based on a uniformity and fusion of forces defined by a geometry structurally defined by Q, and whose stabilization through Q might eventually be made evident through experiment? Also, the persistence of the superimposed quantum states through evolution could involve a spiral regeneration of force through time, a regeneration defined by the imaginary constant 1i within an algebra of complex numbers As Penrose points out, such an evolution represents a determinism at the quantum or microlevel of existence, and this evolution of superimposition can only be described through the algebra of complex numbers. This process of stabilization, the ceasing of superimposition, might even occur in a selfsimilar manner through and by means of an increasing fractal whose geometry is based on Q and the imaginary number or constant, i. (There is a very close regenerationcorrespondence between Q and i as pointed out by Lieber, 1998a.) Perhaps, such stability of states would also occur concurrently at an extremely small scale connected or opening to the six hidden, curled dimensions on and of even smaller scales within fractals, whose very generation could predictably also be defined by Q, i, and Π. Reality would appear to be a complex fractal composed of adjacent fractals within fractalspossibly vortical in configuration through selfsimilar, logarithmic golden spirals reflecting or defined by Qwhose underlining constant parameter is Q or its reciprocal. (See Figure 1 and Figure 2.) Perhaps, this fractal reality could also be described by an analytical geometry of complex numbers, as well as by Π, e and Q. This constant, dimensionless parameter Q could determine or enable the morphogenesis of this universal fractal and the selfsimilar, uniform configuration of forces that would sustain it stably through all various scales, by means of a universal template that would be enabled and defined by Q and projected via imprinting through all scales. It would be a morphogenesis that enables and represents maximum inner, dynamic, stable accommodation within and between all scales of itself. Might some day will the likely inherent logarithmic, vortical structure and vortical dynamic of reality at all scales become experimentally demonstrated, even at the quantum level. It is predicted that this will be the situation. One way this vortical process structering reality could be represented mathematically is with the following equation similar to the one in Table 1: F_{u }[r(ϴ)] = e^{iθlnΦ/Π/2 }where F_{u }refers to uniformity of forces generated over various scales within any vortical, selfsimilar structure defined by Q (or Φ), Π, i and e, the symbols defining constant, exponential and spiral generation through change, that is, a constancy through change or uniform, vortical action. Perhaps, the equation, itself a type of constant or universal representation through different scales, also refers to the actual, selfsimilar unfolding of all the possible vortical structures of force that could exist superimposed, a superimposition that could be defined by the algebra involving i. Regarding these vortices, the boundaries between the adjacent, unfolded vortical fractals could represent the discontinuities on the quantum scale, but, inclusively at a higher scale, these boundaries could have themselves the shape of intersecting logarithmic spirals of curved lines of force emerging from the nonunformities within a generative plenum. In effect, discontinuities of energy or force could emerge from and be defined by the intersecting, spirally curvilinear continuities of geometrically enabled or mediated force via Q. III. Epilogue Many computer simulations of various fractal morphologies, visible on screens, have been generated using a basic iterative or feedback loop algorithm (with exponents) involving the complex number plane based on the imaginary number, i. Many of these fractals take on the intricate and complex shapes of various integrated spirals or vortices. Others closely resemble complex, branching aquatic plants and small, aquatic invertebrate animals. (See Pickover, 1990.) This iteration is involved in the generation of the selfsimilarity on various scales of these vortical and biomorphic fractals. Such iteration or looping or twisting, producing, engaging and connecting various scales, would be a necessary, significant feature of regeneration, especially of biological regeneration. As pointed out earlier by this author (Lieber, 1998a), the biological constant, Q, the golden ratio, or powers thereof, defines or reflects a selfsimilar process of regeneration through forces on various scales by means of a repeated imprinting within and through the spacetime geometry of physical and biological reality. The very computer generation of the various fractal morphologies use and depend on electric and magnetic forces and the electromagnetic energy of light for the display to be visible. Though computer programs enable the generation of the fractals, such programs must be designed in such a way whereby the dynamic process of regenerativeiteration through different scales, via those forces and energies, has to take place, in effect duplicating or representing on a much smaller scale what is occurring in nature. In the natural world, the regeneration of selfsimilarity through iteration is defined or enabled by Q. This regeneration, spirally manifested and defined by Q, would also become the manifestation of a projective template, a type of symmetrical imperfection within an underlining plenum or substratum, creating imprinted nonuniformities within this plenum. This imperfection would selfsimilarly modify and define a spacetimefield geometry and would manifest itself transcalerly through its evolving imprinting on the underlining plenum, and, in so doing, would create and projectively evolve stabilizing forces on all scales within phenomena. This could be a template that might be considered an inherent, universal program and a source of a determining mathematics, especially a geometry dynamically structured and mediated by and through the dimensionless constants, such as Q. Such dimensionless constants would be the avenues, through forces, that enable the universals of the inherent template to extend into our existence and give dynamic structure and form to it. IV. Concluding Remarks One may ask whether such a template/program exists. Is this a valid scientific hypothesis that can be tested? The information presented in this article, much based on experimentation and mathematical applications, suggests the feasibility of such a template with geometrical properties being present, which may further indicate the existence of an inherent mathematics within the universe that gives shape indirectly to reality. The physicist and mathematician, Roger Penrose (1994), does argue for independent, eternal mathematical expressions and rules within the universe to which our minds have direct access, many of these having been used in physics. Our minds being a part of the universe and seeking and engaging eternal mathematical expressions within reality would in itself be a type of experiment or scientific test. Moreover, newly discovered mathematical expressions, especially with new types of constants, could suggest the existence of new types of phenomena or new relationships within known phenomena, as has been the case in the history of science. These predicted, new physical phenomena may predictably make evident new, dimensional constants dependent on Q or its various forms. Yet, what about the traditionally empirical or scientific method of testability that has been so successful? At this stage of scientific development, the existence of such a template may not be directly testable due to the current limitations of our scientific apparatus or technology. However, with the development of new scientific technologies and approaches via the application of mind, the hypothesis could very well become testable. In fact, there may be an approach to such an experimental test through the known organization of the microtubules composing the neurons of the brain. The organization of the protein components of the microtubules, which make up the functioning cytoskeleton of cells, is based on numbers having the golden ratio with respect to one another. (See Penrose, 1994.) As Professor Penrose points out, various scientists argue that this particular organization, which is based on the golden ratio, enables the microtubules to function more efficiently through changes in their conformations mediated by electrical forces, behaving as information processors. As Penrose further shows, these microtubules are very likely required for higher consciousness, which he says could manifest itself as a quantum coherence on the macroscale throughout all the interconnected microtubules of all the neurons of the brain. As the golden ratio, the dimensionless biological constant, is essential for the organization within the microtubules, is it not possible that the golden ratio can imprint itself via the dynamics shaped by this organizationon this coherence, our minds? And that this imprinting could be demonstrated? And through this imprinting, could we not have grasped its deeper significance and universality, a universality which would also suggest an imprinting of a template represented by Q onto our consciousness, our minds? Perhaps, through a further investigation of such microtubules, and their enabling of consciousness, could such an imprintingtemplate be accessed or demonstrated, perhaps holographically projected outside our minds. In view of this, such testability could be feasible at some time. At present, this may seem to be a difficult if not a nearly impossible task. Yet, the history of science demonstrates how the development of new technologies and approaches enabled the testing of important theories, which before seemed impossible to test. Thus, it should remain for the future to ascertain whether or not such a template exists, but it will be a determination that ultimately depends on mind creatively connecting to and using a deeper reality, perhaps one reflected through a multidimensional geometry based on and allowed through the eternal constants Q, e, i and Π. This should be the source of our motivation and courage to find new truths. V. Further Thoughts about Predictions Does physical theory predict the existence of the very dimensional physical constants of nature? According to Paul Lieber (1968), the very generation of stability and constancy within nature through forces would indicate the necessary existence of the physical dimensional constants in physical phenomena and their representation in a mathematical description of such phenomena. As he argues, the Special Theory of Relativity demands that the speed of light be a constant. The deeper implication of this is that the Special Theory of Relativity would have predicted the constancy of the speed of light, even if such constancy had not been demonstrated before. In the same article, Paul Lieber shows that the stability, a type of constancy, of the states of matter within quantum mechanics demands the existence of a constant such as the quantum of action, Plank's constant. Again, this implicitly predicts the necessary existence of such a constant had it not been demonstrated before the stability of the quantum states of matter was discovered. In view of this, it is likely that the other dimensional constants, such as the charge of the electron and proton, could have also been predicted. The physical dimensional constants represent or define the deep connection between constancy or stability in nature and the forces, such constancy and stabilization depending on the forces and their patterns. Implicitly, the dimensionless biological constant or its forms should also be predicted if these compose the physical dimensional constants. As it appears that this biological constant defines or represents a vortical regeneration that gives enhanced stability, and thereby constancy, to physical and biological processes or phenomena at various levels of organizations, this dimensionless constant Q can also be predicted as being demonstrated through such phenomena, especially processes having a vortically structural dynamic. The very constant electrical charge of an electron (and implicitly of a proton) demands the predicted occurrence of Q as a necessary structural representation of this charge. Why would this be the case as we note the direct evidence of Q in this constant? As pointed out (Lieber, 1998a), there is evidence that “particles” such as electrons and protons have an asymmetrical vortical structure, where one charge, say negative, occurs when the vortex is asymmetrically lefthanded and the opposite charge occurs if the asymmetrical vortex is righthanded, or vice versa. In other words, electrical charge is dependent on complementary, asymmetrical configurations, that is, mirror images of the respective vortices. As pointed out in that article, such vortices suggest an inherent hydrodynamic nature of reality on all scales, including the quantum mechanical. Based on the vortical morphology of matter on the quantum level, one can predict that a constant of matter on that level would be directly represented by Q, which also defines the vortex of the logarithmic spiral and its generation of increasing stability from the quantum level to cosmological level. It would seem that Q and its forms, as well as other critical constants such as pi and i, represent and manifest a template within the plenum that through these constants projectively guides and enables, via imprinting, the selfsimilar generation of those force patterns allowing for a maximum uniformity of force within nonuniform force magnitudes throughout all physical scales and situations, achieving through such uniformity, dynamic completion. And thereby, such a projective template into spacetime would enable, through those constants, a vortical, hydrodynamic drive or conserving regeneration towards stability and dynamic completion on all physicaltemporal scales. Through such a transformation process, a conservation of physical integrity or physical system, and connected physical laws, would be achieved or enabled continually, and hence what physicists refer to as physical symmetry. This would be through all scales of reality by means of vortical regeneration. This symmetry as continuity of system integrity or its dynamic maintenance would reflect a constancy through all spatialtemporal scales via vortical regeneration enabled by Q and the other constants related to the universal template. Might those enabling constants in effect be extensions of such a universal template, by virtue of which, those enabling constants such as Q being templates themselves? (See Figure 3 and Figure 4. The image in Figure 3 could represent a vorticallystructured reality emerging biologically from a plenumfield through a template projection manifested by Q's guidance.) As this article has argued for the existence of an enabling, underlying dimensionless biological constant within all the dimensional physical constants, providing evidence for its existence, thereby linking the physical constants, this article has not only predicted the existence of such a biological constant and its forms, it has shown their existence is very likely, especially their role in achieving maximum stability. Also, had this dimensionless biological constant been demonstrated in physical phenomena before the discovery of the dimensional physical constants, the latter might very well have been predicted because of the former. It is predicted that if physicists and biologists seriously consider the existence and enabling operation of such a biological constant, incorporating it into their approaches, a truly unified view of reality may ensue, showing a drive towards a maximization of stability and dynamic completion on all levels of physical reality or physical scales, a unification through an enabling constant. In 1969(b), Paul Lieber was thinking along similar lines with regard to the universal dimensional constants of physics when he wrote: "These constants, I believe, are the universal constants of nature and therefore in particular of the life process. It is in these constants and in what their existence manifests that the processes which we arbitrarily ascribe to to the inanimate and animate worlds merge, and where we must search for their synthesis and thus their comprehension." And through a concurrent investigation of the universal, dimensionless biological constant, such a universal comprehension will be achieved.
Some Dimensional Physical Constants Exhibiting a Dimensionless Biological Constant, Q (and its forms), Equivalent to the Golden Ratio, 1.618 and The Dimensionless Geometrical Constant, Π or Pi The electric charge constant of the electron: Q x (Π^{2})^{19} coulombs Proton/electron mass ratio: 3Q x (Π^{2})^{3} Mass of the hydrogen atom: Very close to Q x (Π^{2})^{27} kg Kinetic energy of a V volt electron: V(Q x (Π^{2})^{19 }J Gravitational constant: (Π^{2}Q^{1}+ Q^{1}) x (Π^{2})^{11} m^{3} kg^{1} s^{2} The quantum of action (Plank's constant): 4Q x (Π^{2 })^{34} Joulessecond Plank's constant is also: (2Q + Q^{1 }+ Q^{2}) x (Π^{2}) electron voltsecond Velocity of light: 5Q^{1 }x (Π^{2})^{8 }meters per second or 1/2Π^{2}Q^{1}x (Π^{2})^{8 }meters per second Avogadro's constant: ∏^{2 }Q^{1 }x (∏^{2})^{23 }per mole Boltzmann constant: 2Q x (∏^{2 })^{24 }cal/^{o }C or 1+Q^{1}/Q x (∏^{2})^{23 }joules per degrees Kelvin Bohr radius of the atom: 2Q^{2 }x (Π^{2})^{9}cm Nuclear magneton: (Π^{2}Q^{1} 1) x (Π^{2})^{27}Jm^{2}Wb^{1} Compton wavelength of the proton and neutron: 6(Q + Q^{1}) x (Π^{2})^{14} cm Fine structure constant: 12Q^{1 }x (Π^{2})^{3} or (2 + Π^{2})Q^{ 1 }x (Π^{2})^{ 3} Plank length: Q x (∏^{2}^{ })^{35 }meters Equation for the logarithmic golden spiral whose growth factor is Q per 90 degrees of turning: r(ϴ) = e^{θlnΦ/Π/2 }where the end of r defines the growing curve or vectorradius of the spiral; θ is the growing angle with respect to the x axis through which the vector r rotates as it grows and defines the spiral with the end of its increasing length (within a polar coordinate system), and Φ is the traditional term for the golden ratio. (See Posamentier & Lehmann, 2012). Within a complex number, polarplanesystem, this equation could also be r(ϴ) = e^{iθlnΦ/Π}^{/2 }where i also represents the constant rate of increasing spiral growth or generation over every 90^{o} irrespective of scale as the vector rotates through 90 degrees with respect to the x axis. The term Π/2 could also represent such constantrategeneration of the extending curvature over every 90 degrees with respect to the coordinates. Π/2 is approximately equal to Q. The equation can also simply be r = e^{iϴ }(Clifford, 1899). As represented by or implicit in this equation, r is the vectorradius of the growing spiral that increases by a factor of Q over each 90 degrees of its rotation with respect to the coordinates, and by a rate of 1.718 per 90 degree rotation with respect to each small segment of the growing curve, where i represents an operation of a 90 degree twist or curving turn as described by Clifford. However, when the vector's length remains constant during rotation, the equation defines a circle in a complex number plane. These coordinate systems would appear to be suitable for illustrating the generation of vortical designs with constant features through spacetime. The numeral 2 appearing in the preceding equation and in some of the equations or expressions of the universal dimensional constants might denote the duality inherent in the projective imprinting by a template upon the plenum, which generates nonuniformity within reality or spacetime, a projected nonuniformity through which the further imprinting generation of vortical designs can be. Might the very exponents composed of 2 in the equations also denote the enhanced contribution of this dynamic property.
A group of adjacent, vortically shaped succulents. Might such a living group reflect as a generative structure the true, vortically dynamic morphology of spacetime emerging on all scales from a pervasive plenum. The elongated, reddish structures could be symbolic of the projections of an underlying template within the plenum. Figure 2 Begonia flower displaying a fluidlike, vortical morphology. This morphology might reflect an inherent generative, dynamic pattern projected within all scales of reality and enabled through the biological dimensionless constant
. Figure 3
Vortical morphology of a Gastropod shell. Might such a morphology also recapitulate the inherent, dynamicallypatterned extension into spacetime, through and from a fluidlike plenum, of a universal template manifested through all scales of reality via the constants.
A Rose with a fluidlike, vortical morphology, possibly reflecting and recapitulating an inherent, enabled, vortically dynamic structure within the fieldfabric of spacetime on various scales.
A section of the equiangular or logarithmic spiral. From Clifford, 1899. The angles of 30 degrees and 60 degrees originate at the vertices in all the small, right triangles along the curve. These small triangles occur through the intersection of the growing spiral radii with the curve. Through the generation of these small, identical triangles, based on the increasing radii during rotations of 90 degrees of such, the growing spiral is defined. The respective cotangents of a 30 degree angle and of a 60 degree angle are the same, namely 1.718. The identical cotangents of these angles along the curve correspond to the constant logarithmic rate of differential growth of the spiral curve. The constant logarithmic rate occurs via the rotation or twist of the growing, end segment of each radius through 90 degrees, forming the 90 degree angle of each identical triangle. This constant growth rate ensues in the generation of the constant, e, which is also a parameter of logarithmic spiral growth. This geometrical analysis of the logarithmic spiral makes manifest the constant parameters or dimensionless constants involved in the generation of the spiral, and thereby, become explicit in or defined in phenomena. References Clifford, W. 1899, republished 1946 & 1955. The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences. Dover Publications, New York Hemenway, P. 2005. Divine Proportion, Phi, In Art, Nature, and Science. Sterling Publishing, Co., New York, NY. Lieber, M. 1998a. The Living Spiral. A Dimensionless Constant Gives a New Perspective to Physics. Rivista di Biologa/Biology Forum 91: 91118 Lieber, M. 1998b. Enviromentally Responsive Mutator Systems: Towards a Unifying Perspective. Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 91: 425458. Lieber, P. 1968. Constants of Nature: Biological Theory and Natural Law. In Towards a Theoretical Biology I, C.H. Waddington (ed), University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh, pp. 180204. Lieber, P. 1969. Aspects of Evolution and a Principle of Maximum Uniformity In Towards a Theoretical Biology II, C.H. Waddington (ed), University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh, pp. 219316. Lieber, P. 1969(b). Categories of Information. In Contribution to Mechanics, edited by D. Abir. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 87106. Livio, M. 2002. The Golden Ratio. The Story of Phi. The World's Most Astonishing Number. Broadway Books, New York. Penrose, R. 1994. Shadows of the Mind. A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. Pickover, C. 1990. Computers Patterns Chaos and Beauty. St. Martin's Press, New York Posamentier, A. & Lehmann, I., 2012. The Glorious Golden Ratio. Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY Postscript: The Unity of Phenomena on Different Scales as Exemplified by the Research of Albert Einstein and Paul Dirac: The Relevance of the Golden Ratio Q as a Universal Dimensionless Biological Constant In his investigations of a unified field theory where a symmetrical gravitational force field and an asymmetrical electromagnetic force field are united, Einstein, using general relativistic methods, showed, as a consequence of such unification, that a mirror configuration of the form of an asymmetrical electromagnetic field can arise due to relativistic dynamics or principles. This is because, as deduced from the theory, there is an invariance with regard to spacetime mirroring: "for every possible field corresponding to an elementary particle for positive charge, there also exists a [mirror] field describing an elementary particle with negative charge but with identical rest mass," as Einstein's theory is described by Folsing in 1997. From an inclusive or global perspective, this would represent or indicate a symmetry of configuration through completing, asymmetrical complements of configuration. The invariance would also reflect the continuity of that global configuration. Moreover, it would also reflect the continuity of the configuration, hence its symmetry, through the transitions from one completing mirrorcomponent to the other. Regarding electrons and their configurations, a mirrorform of an electron and its asymmetrical field would have, according to Einstein's theory, the same massenergy of the other electron with its negative charge and corresponding asymmetrical field, but would have a positive charge by virtue of its mirrorformconfiguration of the asymmetrical field structure of the negatively charged electron. This led Einstein to conclude that concentrated fieldconfigurations or entities having the same massenergy of an electron with its field, but with a positive charge, should exist. (See Folsing, 1997.) Significantly, Einstein's unified field theory thus implicitly predicted the existence of positively charged electrons, as well as seemingly implying an inherent dynamic to symmetry, or completion, in the universe. However, at that time in 1925, no known entity/structure as a positively charged electron existed, and physicists at the time would only consider the existence of the two known particles. These were the negatively charged electron and the positively charged proton, which is of far greater mass than the electron, and thus would not be the mirror entity/configuration of the electron. They were not open to the possible existence of other charged particles. Because such a positively charged electron did not exist, contrary to what his unified theory determined would be the situation, and not concluding or predicting a possible future discovery of such, Einstein eventually disregarded this theoretical approach to the unification of the different fields in 1925. Nevertheless, his published, theoretical approach in 1925 implicitly, if not explicitly, predicted the existence of the positively charged electron, and seven years later such an electron was discovered. This demonstrated that a new unified field theory exercised on the macrolevel predicted the existence of a new structure on the microlevel or quantum level. Its subsequent discovery would have given experimental validation to Einstein's unified field theory. Independently, the quantum physicist, Paul Dirac, combining quantum mechanics with special relativity, and using a geometrically oriented mathematics, predicted the existence of the positively charged electron in 1931, later referred to as the positron. Using the methods of special relativity, he concluded that electrons can also have a negative energy state. He saw that such electrons with negative energy exist in a vast continuum or sea. When such an electron left that continuum, it left a hole. The hole represented the opposite energy state of the departed electron, that is positive energy. Also, the hole being the opposite of the charge of the departed negatively charged electron represented a positive charge. In effect, the hole represented a electron of positive charge and energy. Though not stated by Dirac, the hole might also have represented a complementarymirror structureform of the electron with negative charge and energy. Thereby, a deeper, intrinsic geometry may also have united Einstein's and Dirac's greatly different, imaginative theoretical approaches or theories. Because Dirac explicitly predicted the existence of the positively charged electron, he is credited for making the prediction that antiparticles exist, that is, antimatter. Unlike Einstein, Dirac foresaw, based on his theory or approach and conviction, their discovery.
However, the two different theoretical approaches, one based on proposed, mirrored asymmetrical fields operating on the classical, spacetime level and another based primarily on a quantum mechanical model operating on the microlevel, using different quantum energy states, and the conclusion of a negative energy state, led nevertheless to the same prediction and later discovery through experiment. In effect, a macrolevel approach and a microlevel approach respectively involving different theoretical scales led to the same prediction. This clearly indicates that there is an intrinsic unity or connection between the theoretical model on the macrolevel and the theoretical model on the microlevel or quantum level, thus a likely unity between the fields operating on these respective levels. And as noted, one feature of this unity might be geometries of complementary or mirror configurations. Though, in applying Special Relativity, Dirac's approach in effect incorporated in part a macroapproach. Because of this unity, predictably, the same underlying constant should apply to both levels of reality. And as we have seen, the dimensionless biological constant Q could be that constant, and it could represent the operational unity of both realms. As noted earlier, Q is the single dimensionless component of the electric charge constant. Interestingly, Q^{1 }is the mirror image or operation of Q. Where Q might represent the generation of an electronfield structure with a negative charge, Q^{1 }might represent the mirrored generation of an electronfield structure with a positive charge. These constants might also suggest the underlying unity of different, complementary scientific approaches or theories. In this regard, entirely different scientific approaches, based on different assumptions or theories, can nevertheless lead to the same experimentally confirmed predictions. This implies that different approaches have an underlying unity due to an underlying unity in reality, irrespective of scale. It is not clear why Einstein did not reconsider the validity of his 1925 unified field theory after the discovery of the positron in 1932. Surely, it must have indicated the validation of his approach and theory, especially as it implied a unity, through levels of reality, of a unifiedfield structure with a quantum mechanical reality. Could he not have collaborated with Dirac on this when Einstein had an opportunity to do so. As described by Farmelo in 2009, Dirac had great respect for Einstein and his General Theory of Relativity. During the late 1930s, both men were at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, Dirac being on sabbatical leave from Cambridge University at the time. However, both men never collaborated, according to Farmelo. In view of the similar outcomes of their different though very important approaches, this remains a mystery in the history of science, a failure to seize an opportunity of great import. Had they done so, maybe a wondrous, paradigmbreaking unified field theory would have been created, perhaps emphasizing the critical operation of a unifying, universal dimensionless biological constant and its forms. Michael Lieber References Farmelo, Graham. 2009. The Strangest Man. The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom. Basic Books, New York, N.Y. Folsing, Albrecht. 1997. Albert Einstein. Viking, Press, New York, N.Y. Statement by Michael Lieber, fall 1981: Through the universals, the mind has been defined by God. This connection to the infinite gives the human being the capacity for infinite development. In this period of growing pessimism, where the human being is seen as a liability to its own existence, this view of the human mind should provide tremendous hope and optimism for the beneficial evolution of the human race and its biosphere SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATING TO THEORETICAL BIOLOGY* By Professor Paul Lieber University of California, April, 1961 Since 1943, I have been engaged in a study relating to the universalphysical constants leading to a number of inferences and conjectures, which may be relevant to furthering our capability in comprehending the life process. Concurrently, I was also engaged in studies on the foundations of classical mechanics and hydrodynamics in which the thinking was naturally influenced by the work done on the universalphysical constants, and conversely. The crossfertilization and interplay of ideas springing forth from what may appear as completely separated areas of investigation has been constructive in producing a somewhat coherent picture relating these apparently disjointed studies. I have been especially concerned with the task of resolving a fundamental conceptual dilemma arising in Hertz's mechanics, and which refers specifically to the problem of materializing in a precise way the geometrical connections invoked by Hertz, and upon which, his theory rests in a crucial manner. An attribute of matter has been isolated, namely impermeability, which achieves this end conceptually at least, and which appears to have an equal significance in resolving a fundamental question arising in the study of the universalphysical constants. This correspondence in turn renders a concept which may appear significant toward evolving a way of thinking constructively and systematically about biological phenomena. My work in classical mechanics suggests with increasing force and conviction the operation in nature of a universal correspondence principle, which may be regarded as an extension of the correspondence principle formulated by Niels Bohr; and which may find its fullest and most perfect expression in the biological process. According to the extended correspondence principle, appropriately extended laws of classical mechanics would, for example, bear direct and complete rather than asymptotic correspondence to the principles of relativistic mechanics as they do in the sense of Bohr. This conjecture implies, of course, that the present statements of the principles of classical mechanics are in a sense incomplete and that a more complete, nonrelativistic expression of them operates within the domain of classical mechanics; and that this form is in a certain sense incomplete rather than in asymptotic correspondence with the principles of relativistic and quantum mechanics. In this connection, it may be hard to imagine a sense in which the known principles of classical mechanics may be regarded as being incomplete. It is now conventional to regard them as deterministic, and it is accordingly tacitly assumed that in principle they render coordinate information with arbitrary accuracy. That is, that in principle there exists no upper bound upon the accuracy of coordinate information sought and obtainable in numerical representation. This, however, is but a conjecture which does not have its basis in proof. The number of solutions obtained by analytical representation for the coordinates of mechanical systems is indeed strikingly limited by their complexity; as reflected, for example, by the unsolved classical problem of three bodies. The fact that the fundamental connections between classical mechanics and thermodynamics remain to be grasped suggests a possible incompleteness in the principles of classical mechanics as they are known. There is indeed now reason to believe that such an extended form of the principles of mechanics may find expression as a variational principle in which space and time are interconnected in a way which corresponds to their metric connection in relativity. It now appears that this variational principle may be obtained by appropriately extending the differential variational principles of Gauss and Hertz to an integral form. In so doing, it would express a condition of maximum uniformity in terms of an integral spacetime measure. There is strong reason to conjecture that this variational principle would render accessible information relating to the behavior of manybody systems, which has hitherto remained inaccessible in terms of known principles of classical mechanics. The threebody problem may be considered as a case in point. This conjecture has grown out of a theorem, based on the mechanics of Gauss and Hertz, which asserts that the collective motion of a manybody system is subject to a law concerning the distribution of a scalar measure of all the internal forces prevailing within the system. This law may provide a bridge for linking at least conceptually and possibly analytically the mechanics and thermodynamics of manybody systems. In so doing, it is quite conceivable that fundamental information about cooperative phenomena, which are so characteristic in organisms, will evolve. It is believed that the extended variational principle referred to above will provide such a bridge. The theorem relating to the distribution of internal forces in a manybody system has also rendered information basic to the conception and formulation of what appears to be a fundamental variational principle for the hydrodynamics of viscous fluids. This variational principle seems among other things to resolve two long outstanding paradoxes of hydrodynamics, and implies a direction connection between asymmetric and timedependent motions. What is equally interesting is that according to this variational principle, vortex and spiral motions are indeed preferred in nonuniform flows. Although this variational principle has been established as a theorem on the basis of the principle of conservation of matter, it renders much more information about flows than has been inferred from this conservation law directly. Its formulation may indeed be regarded as a synthetic technique for extracting the information cited above. Noting this variational principle is relevant here since it conditions cooperative phenomena in fluids and furnishes an example of how fundamental and new information about flows is obtained by such a formulation. This principle asserts that a measure of uniformity is a maximum for real flows. It is accordingly related in some sense to the extended variational principle mentioned above pertaining to manybody systems. A biological system may be regarded as a complex consisting of component systems which, according to our conventional way of thinking, are individually either predominately classical or nonclassical in their operation. For example, the hydrodynamics of such a complex may be assumed to be governed by the laws of classical mechanics and thermodynamics, whereas the molecular chemistry is essentially quantum mechanical and quantum electrodynamical in nature. It is the strong and highly controlled interplay between these component systems which is indeed overwhelmingly characteristic of biological material. It is difficult to conceive how this interplay and control can find its expression in a correspondence principle which emphasizes their connections as being asymptotic rather than universal. Conversely, this observation concerning the function of biological material evokes compulsively the operation of a universal correspondence principle which emphasizes the strong rather than the asymptotic connections between the principles governing the function of their components. My research work pertaining to a study of the structure of the universalphysical constants led to some interesting and unusual conclusions. These require careful reexamination and possibly both amplification and extension before they can be submitted as results for publication. One conclusion reached under this study, which may have fundamental implications to biology, is that the universalphysical constants imply the existence of a class of physical phenomena whose manifestations are detectable but nevertheless in principle are not amenable to control. In this sense, this class of phenomena are in principle inaccessible to direct observation and manipulation by the application of impressed forces. The implication to biology suggested here refers more specifically to the operation of biological control systems, in which the control mechanisms are in a sense inaccessible to disturbances emanating from the systems which they control and dominate. The universal physicalconstants thus appear to provide connectionsbetween a class of nonobservable and observable physical phenomena, and these connections may prove fundamental in the function and control of biological processes. Another related conjecture obtained from the study of the universal constants is that they are manifestations of elementary spacetime structures rather than of elementary particles. The search for elementary particles in physics appears motivated by and may be attributed to a conceptual framework which implicitly adheres to the idea that all matter is composed of elementary bodies and that any and all of the changes occurring therein may be attributed to displacements in space and time of those elementary particles. The identification with the universalphysical constants of invariant spacetime structures, which propagate as a helix by regeneration rather than by bodily displacement, calls for a reexamination of the validity and appropriateness of the conceptual framework in which the notion of an elementary particle is implicitly cast. The notion of an elementary body and its displacement implies that it is imbedded in a space which can accommodate its displacement, in such a way, that it is always composed of the same material. The primitive idea of localizing a body by affixing to it a label carries this implication, since if the material changes then the label is destroyed. The identification of universal spacetime structures rather than elementary particles with the universal constants, and their inaccessibility to observation, leads to the conjecture that they are imbedded in an impermeable, material continuum and propagate by regeneration rather than by bodily displacement. These finite structures embody both corpuscular and wavelike properties. Their corpuscular properties, however, differ fundamentally from those of an elementary particle in that the material constituting an elementary structure is continuously changing consistent with the requirements that the structure remain invariant. The idea of localizability and thus labeling can, however, be retained under these conditions, as well, if the labels are identified with material points rather with material bodies. In this case, however, the elementary particles are the material points of a material continuum, in terms of which, the concept of localizability finds its purest and most precise expression. Biological control systems are striking in their precision of operation and power of organizing the function of macrosystems within an organism. What is an equally striking fact, and which must also be accommodated by any acceptable way of thinking about biological systems, is that these control systems are materialized in but a small fraction of the material constituting the organisms, which they control. These observations compulsively suggest that the material of which the control systems are made may be inaccessible to observation and thus to direct experiment. They may accordingly be identified with the class of physical phenomena, which according to the universalphysical constants, are in principle inaccessible to direct experiment. This inaccessibility would account for the immunity enjoyed by the biological control systems with respect to the functions of the macrosystems, which they control and dominate. The universalphysical constants imply a connection, as noted above, between a class of nonobservable and observable phenomena, which are engaged irreversibly so to insure the invariance of elementary spatial temporal structures in the nonobservable domain. It is here conjectured that these structures may be fundamental to biological control systems, and their invariance and inaccessibility may account for the immunity which they appear to enjoy with respect to observable changes.
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